Ok, this probably isn't going to go beyond a few hypothetical maps, but in any case, let's proceed.
In my story right now, humans and dragons live in a somewhat uneasy balance together; in my Lost in Mirrors story, dragons were the superior species; in the [far] future of my story, likely after I stop writing it, the human race might end up usurped as the dominant race on earth altogether, with dragons calling the shots everywhere, in little more than four or five great dragon mega-empires spanning the globe.
But just now, as I was getting washed and dressed, I had a thought: What would the world look like if humans never existed at all, and it was just dragons given the responsibility to creating civilization? There'd be no Britain, there'd be no America, or China, or even the ancient nations such as Rome or Babylon, as there'd be no humans to create these places.
This is leads to a problem; no humans, no human boundaries to take into account. There's also another problem: Dragons are a far, far more physically diverse race than humans ever are, and just look how discriminating we've been throughout history! If dragons existed on Earth alone, I fear those would be their mistakes to make, not ours.
And so leads me to a theory I once made about such a world in the past, put into the story by a futurist dragon named Loutherkin Van Braun, an electric dragon from Avalarian Holland.
Loutherkin's view of such a world is very divided and pessimistic. In such a world, the majority of the elements would live separate from one another, dragons would live in societies dictated by their element, and their cultures, nations, societies and gods would reflect this.
Fire dragons would be the most pragmatic, but also the most parasitic, as their element is primarily a destructive one; if this was a world where humans existed, they would live among humans, or the ruins of their past civilizations; if not, they would likely live nomadic lives, travelling constantly to wherever food or resources could be found.
Water dragons would live along, and in, the coasts of the world in coastal and underwater cities; their nations would be long, thing lands stretched over the coastline like lips on a mouth. Their society would exist mainly upon fishing and resources they can gather from the water.
Ice dragons would live in the far north, in the coldest corners of the world. Theirs would be a very Spartan, minimalist society, as their sources of food and resources would be scarce; they'd likely have it even worse than fire dragons, and the two elements would fight bitterly whenever they came into contact with one another.
Earth and Nature dragons could be both allies and rivals, depending upon the circumstances. Earth dragons would exist in subterranean cities, and would rely heavily upon whatever resources they could mine or drill for; they'd have a heavy dependence upon fossil fuels, which would likely be their downfall; this also puts them at odds with Nature dragons: Nature dragons would exist in forests and other wildernesses; their homes would be either in the trees, or in homes built partially into the soil for warmth and roofed with grassy plains; theirs would be a society heavily dominated by either agriculture or a hunter-gather society, depending upon their location.
Electric dragons would actually have it best in this world. Their society would live in advanced, modern cities powered by electric dragons themselves, who would pour their energy breaths into batteries and other storage mediums, which would power their cities and technology; therefore, their priority would be keeping themselves energised and healthy, but they wouldn't really need fuels or conventional power sources to survive; these dragons would be looked upon with bitter envy by others, as theirs is easily the most comfortable life, and most similar to the world we exist in now.
Other elements would struggle to form socities like these, due to universally hated or feared elements, such as shadow, poison or fear, and would end up becoming wild dragons or parasites off any of the other societies which exist, while some, such as light or purple dragons, would be welcomed anywhere.
A theory I've had just now though builds upon this, with early dragons living in this way in their 'prehistoric' period, before the early dragon kingdoms (Avalar, Sekeolath, etc.) emerged, where all dragons lived together, and shared their abilities for a greater good. It'd be a pretty turbulent world, as it somewhat suggests that Racial Fascism would emerge quite quickly as an ideology, considering the nature of the communities which existed before multi-elemental societies.
Still, this would be an interesting map to create; it'd likely look nothing like the maps of the world we see today, as humans played no part in the world's political geography, so the political geography we know (I.e. Continents such as Europe and the Americas, and countries therein) wouldn't exist in quite the same way. I might try to make such a map if I get time.